Best Practices

1. Enzymes    

  • If the must will spend more than 50 minutes in the holding tank, add Scottzyme Flash at 2-5mL/hL (75-190mL/1000gal) to help increase yield.    
  • Apply the Flash Détente process. 
  • If enzyme was not used prior to Flash Détente, add Scottzyme Flash at 2-5mL/hL to help with clarification.
  • Eliminate the lees with a vacuum filter, via flotation (enzyme Rapidase Flottation may be necessary), or decanting centrifuge. Turbidity should be less than 200 NTU.

2. Tannins

  • Use 200-500 ppm FT Rouge, FT Rouge Soft, or Tannin RW eight hours after adding the enzyme.
  • If further color stabilization is required add FT ColorMax or Tannin C at 1/3 sugar depletion.
  • 50-400 ppm of Uva’Tan may be used to increase catechin tannin. For best impact add at 1/3 sugar depletion or toward the end of fermentation.

3. Yeast derivative nutrients

  •  Additions of natural yeast derivatives such as Opti-RED, Booster Rouge or Noblesse can have a positive impact on the colloidal balance of the wine. An addition of 227 g/ton of Opti-RED or Booster Rouge at the onset of fermentation provides early polysaccharide availability for complexing with polyphenols as soon as they are released and diffused. This early complexing can result in red wines with more intense color, rounder mouthfeel and better tannin integration. A subsequent addition of Opti-RED, Booster Rouge or Noblesse towards the end of fermentation allows the winemaker to shape harsh polyphenols into smoother, more approachable tannins.

 4. Yeast Inoculation

  • Rehydrate selected yeast with appropriate amount of GoFerm or GoFerm Protect. 
  •  If your potential alcohol is 14% or lower inoculate at 25g/hL. If the initial brix is higher, increase inoculation rate.

5. Yeast Selection

  •  If the fruit has some underripe characteristics, select a strain like ICV-GRE, CSM, BDX, or CVRP.
  •  To avoid cooked characteristics, select strains like ICV-D21, ICV-D80, Clos, or CVRP.

6. Fermentation Nutrient Additions

  •  Measure yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in the must.  
  •  Add oxygen two times per day at 6 mg/L until 1/3 sugar depletion.
  •  Use Fermaid K and/or Fermaid O (depending on your Brix and YAN levels).
  •  Exercise caution with DAP. DAP may favor the formation of sulfide off-flavors which can, in turn, emphasize vegetal characters. In very low nitrogen must, DAP should only be used with a complete yeast nutrient (e.g. Fermaid K).

7. Temperature Control

  • Temperature management is important.  Keep the must at 68 ̊F(maximum) to promote fruit driven aromas and maintain healthy yeast.

8. End of Alcoholic Fermentation

  •  Centrifuge when fermentation is finished.
  • If persistent vegetal characters exist, try a 10 g/hL addition of Noblesse.

9. Malolactic Bacteria Selection

  •  Inoculate as soon primary fermentation is complete.
  • Choose strains noted for mouthfeel enhancement such as MBR VP41 or Alpha. Rehydrate bacteria with Acti-ML or use in conjunction with Opti’Malo Plus nutrient. Using 1-Step strains like 1-Step VP41 or 1-Step Alpha works very well and may improve success with a timely ML completion.
  • For more fruit forward styles consider doing an ML co-inoculation with your yeast. For details on protocol, please visit our website at www.scottlab.com