- If the must will spend more than 50 minutes in the holding tank, add Scottzyme Flash at 2-5mL/hL (75-190mL/1000gal) to help increase yield.
- Apply the Flash Détente process.
- If enzyme was not used prior to Flash Détente, add Scottzyme Flash at 2-5mL/hL to help with clarification.
- Eliminate the lees with a vacuum filter, via flotation (enzyme Rapidase Flotation may be necessary), or decanting centrifuge. Turbidity should be less than 200 NTU.
- Use 200-500 ppm FT Rouge or FT Rouge Soft eight hours after adding the enzyme.
- If further color stabilization is required, add FT Colormax at 1/3 sugar depletion.
- 50-400 ppm of Uva'tan may be used to increase catechin tannin. For best impact add at 1/3 sugar depletion or toward the end of fermentation.
3. Yeast Derivative Nutrients
- Additions of natural yeast derivatives such as Opti-Red, Optimum Red, Booster Rouge or Noblesse can have a positive impact on the colloidal balance of the wine. An addition of 227 g/ton of Opti-Red or Booster Rouge at the onset of fermentation provides early polysaccharide availability for complexing with polyphenols as soon as they are released and diffused. This early complexing can result in red wines with more intense color, rounder mouthfeel, and better tannin integration. A subsequent addition of Opti-Red, Optimum Red, Booster Rouge or Noblesse towards the end of fermentation allows the winemaker to shape harsh polyphenols into smoother, more approachable tannins.
4. Yeast Inoculation
- Rehydrate selected yeast with the appropriate amount of GoFerm or GoFerm Protect Evolution.
- If your potential alcohol is 14% or lower, inoculate at 25g/hL. If the initial brix is higher, increase the inoculation rate.
5. Yeast Selection
- If the fruit has some underripe characteristics, select a strain like ICV GRE, CSM , BDX, or CVRP.
- To avoid cooked characteristics, select strains like ICV D21, ICV D80, CLOS, or CVRP.
6. Fermentation Nutrient Additions
- Measure yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in the must.
- Add oxygen two times per day at 6 mg/L until 1/3 sugar depletion.
- Use Fermaid K and/or Fermaid O (depending on your Brix and YAN levels).
- Exercise caution with DAP-Diammonium Phosphate. DAP-Diammonium Phosphate may favor the formation of sulfide off-flavors which can, in turn, emphasize vegetal characters. In very low nitrogen must, DAP-Diammonium Phosphate should only be used with a complete yeast nutrient (e.g. Fermaid K).
7. Temperature Control
- Temperature management is important. Keep the must at 68 ̊F(maximum) to promote fruit-driven aromas and maintain healthy yeast.
8. End of Alcoholic Fermentation
- Centrifuge when fermentation is finished.
- If persistent vegetal characters exist, try a 10 g/hL addition of Noblesse.
9. Malolactic Bacteria Selection
- Inoculate as soon primary fermentation is complete.
- Choose strains noted for mouthfeel enhancement such as VP41 or Alpha. Rehydrate bacteria with Acti-ML or use in conjunction with Opti-Malo Plus nutrient. Using 1-Step strains like VP41 Malolactic Bacteria (1-Step Culture)or Alpha Malolactic Bacteria (1-Step Culture) works very well and may improve success with a timely ML completion.
- For more fruit forward styles, consider doing an ML co-inoculation with your yeast. For details on this protocol, please view the Rehydration Instructions for Co-Inoculation or 1-Step Rehydration Protocol for Sequential Inoculation.