Fermentation Management


Fermentation Management

A Focus on Nutrition and Aroma Optimization


In order to conduct a healthy and complete fermentation, yeast require minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, sterols and nitrogen. Minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and sterols are provided by Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ , whereas nitrogen is provided by Fermaid K™ and Fermaid O™. The Stimula range of nutrients can be incorporated into your program to optimize the yeasts' ability to enhance thiols and esters in red, white and rosé wines.

To calculate your nutrient additions, based on sugar, yeast strain requirements and your fermentation goal, follow one of the programs below.


Steps to Determine Yeast Strain Requirements

    1. Choose your yeast strain. Yeast are classified as low, medium and high nitrogen requiring.
    2. Determine yeast strain’s Measurable YAN requirement using the table below.
    3. Calculate the nitrogen required:
      1. Nitrogen required (table 1) - Juice/Must YAN = Amount of YAN required to supplement (ppm)
    4. Determine fermentation goal for red, white or rosé and follow the outlined program:
      1. Fermentation security
      2. Fermentation security and revelation of thiols
      3. Fermentation security and optimization of esters
      4. Yeast Strain Nitrogen Requirements

        Sugar Yeast Strain Nitrogen Requirements (ppm)
        Brix Low Medium High
        20 150 180 250
        22 165 200 275
        24 180 220 300
        26 195 240 325
        28 210 260 350
        30 225 280 375

Goal - Fermentation Security

YAN Required to Supplement Yeast Rehydration At 2-3 Brix Sugar Drop At 1/3 Sugar Drop
0-50 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ No addition 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™
51-100 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 20 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ 20 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ + 12.5 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid K™
101-150 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid K™



Goal - Revelation of Thiols in Whites & Rosés

YAN Required to Supplement Yeast Rehydration At 2-3 Brix Sugar Drop At 1/3 Sugar Drop
0-50 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Sauvignon blanc™ 10 g/hL (0.83 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™
51-100 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Sauvignon blanc™ 20 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™
101-150 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Sauvignon blanc™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™



Goal - Optimization of Esters in Whites & Rosés

YAN Required to Supplement Yeast Rehydration At 2-3 Brix Sugar Drop At 1/3 Sugar Drop
0-50 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ No addition 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Chardonnay™
51-100 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 20 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Chardonnay™
101-150 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Chardonnay™



Goal - Revelation of Thiols in Reds

YAN Required to Supplement Yeast Rehydration At 2-3 Brix Sugar Drop At 1/3 Sugar Drop
0-50 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Syrah™ 10 g/hL (0.83 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™
51-100 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Syrah™ 20 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™
101-150 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Syrah™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™



Goal - Optimization of Esters in Reds

YAN Required to Supplement Yeast Rehydration At 2-3 Brix Sugar Drop At 1/3 Sugar Drop
0-50 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ No addition 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Cabernet™
51-100 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 20 g/hL (1.7 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Cabernet™
101-150 ppm 30 g/hL (2.5 lb/1000 gals) Go-Ferm Protect Evolution™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Fermaid O™ 40 g/hL (3.3 lb/1000 gals) Stimula Cabernet™



Measurable YAN vs. YAN Equivalent


Most academic recommendations for YAN supplementation have been based on measurable YAN, often supplemented in the form of DAP. Lallemand has demonstrated that organic forms of YAN are 4-6 times more efficient than inorganic YAN. This means that a 25 g/hL addition of Fermaid O™ has 10 ppm measurable YAN but a YAN efficiency or equivalence of 40-60 ppm. Throughout our recommendations, this has been taken into account.



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